THE FUEL IS FROM BIOLOGICAL RAW MATERIALS
Journal of Agricultural and biological research an open access rapid peer reviewed journal in the field of agricultural research. It is a bimonthly journal. Below we discuss about.
Biofuel is fuel that is produced through contemporary processes from biomass, rather than by the very slow geological processes involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as oil. Since biomass technically can be used as a fuel directly (e.g. wood logs), some people use the terms biomass and biofuel interchangeably. More often than not, however, the word biomass simply denotes the biological raw material the fuel is made of, or some form of thermally/chemically altered solid end product, like torrefied pellets or briquettes.
The word biofuel is usually reserved for liquid or gaseous fuels, used for transportation. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) follows this naming practice. Drop-in biofuels are functionally equivalent to petroleum fuels and fully compatible with the existing petroleum infrastructure. They require no engine modification of the vehicle.
Biofuel can be produced from plants (i.e. energy crops), or from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes (if the waste has a biological origin). Biofuel generally involve contemporary carbon fixation, such as those that occur in plants or microalgae through the process of photosynthesis. The greenhouse gas mitigation potential of biofuel varies considerably, from emission levels comparable to fossil fuels in some scenarios to negative emissions in others. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) defines bioenergy as a renewable form of energy.
The two most common types of biofuel are bioethanol and biodiesel.
Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn, sugarcane, or sweet sorghum. Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form (E100), but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the United States and in Brazil.
Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using trans esterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe. It can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form (B100), but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles.
In 2019, worldwide biofuel production reached 161 billion liters (43 billion gallons US), up 6% from 2018, and biofuels provided 3% of the world's fuels for road transport. The International Energy Agency wants biofuels to meet more than a quarter of world demand for transportation fuels by 2050, in order to reduce dependency on petroleum. However, the production and consumption of biofuels are not on track to meet the IEA's sustainable development scenario. From 2020 to 2030 global biofuel output has to increase by 10% each year to reach IEA's goal. Only 3% growth annually is expected in the next 5 years.s.
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