DEFINATION AND VARIETIES OF AGRO ECOLOGY
Journal of Agricultural and biological research an open access rapid peer reviewed journal in the field of agricultural research. It is a bimonthly journal. Below we discuss about.
Agro ecology is defined by the OECD as "the study of the relation of agricultural crops and environment. Dalgaard et al. refer to agro ecology as the study of the interactions between plants, animals, humans and the environment within agricultural systems. Francis et al. also use the definition in the same way, but thought it should be restricted to growing food. Agro ecology is a holistic approach that seeks to reconcile agriculture and local communities with natural processes for the common benefit of nature and livelihoods.Agroecology is inherently multidisciplinary, including sciences such as agronomy, ecology, environmental science, sociology, economics, history and others. Agro ecology uses different sciences to understand elements of ecosystems such as soil properties and plant-insect interactions, as well as using social sciences to understand the effects of farming practices on rural communities, economic constraints to developing new production methods, or cultural factors determining farming practices.The system properties of agro ecosystems studied may include: productivity, stability, sustainability and equitability. Agro ecology is not limited to any one scale; it can range from an individual gene to an entire population or from a single field in a given farm to global systems. Wojtkowski differentiates the ecology of natural ecosystems from agro ecology inasmuch as in natural ecosystems there is no role for economics, whereas in agro ecology, focusing as it does on organisms within planned and managed environments, it is human activities, and hence economics,that are the primary governing forces that ultimately control the field. Wojtkowski discusses the application of agro ecology in agriculture, forestry and agroforestry.
Buttel identifies four varieties of agro ecology in a 2003 conference paper. The main varieties he calls ecosystem agro ecology which he claims derives from the ecosystem ecology of Howard T. Odum and focuses less on the rural sociology, and agronomic agro ecology which he identifies as being oriented towards developing knowledge and practices to agriculture more sustainable. The third long-standing variety Buttel calls ecological political economy which he defines as critiquing the politics and economy of agriculture and weighted to radical politics. The smallest and newest variety Buttel coins agro-population ecology, which he says is very similar to the first, but is derived from the science of ecology primarily based on the more modern theories of population ecology such as population dynamics of constituent species, and their relationships to climate and biogeochemistry, and the role of genetics. Dalgaard et al. identify different points of view: what they call early "integrative" agr ecology, such as the investigations of Henry Gleason or Frederic Clements. The second version they cite Hecht as coining "hard" agro ecology which they identify as more reactive to environmental politics but rooted in measurable units and technology. They themselves name "soft" agro ecology which they define as trying to measure agro ecology in terms of "soft capital" such as culture or experience. The term agro ecology may use by people for a science, movement or practice. Using the name as a movement became more common in the 1990s, especially in the Americas. Miguel Altieri, whom Buttel groups with the "political" agro ecologists, has published prolifically in this sense. He has applied agro ecology to sustainable agriculture, alternative agriculture and traditional knowledge.
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